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Immigration and the American Industrial Revolution from to Social Science Research, 38 4 , pp. Holzer, H.


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    The Jackson Era Timeline of Important Dates

    Lebergott, S. Labor Force and Employment, — Lind, M. Free Trade Fallacy. Lu, Z. Maytaal, A. McClelland, E. The New York Times. Ministry of Commerce of P. Mokyr, J. Monten, J. International Security, 29 4 , pp. Muller, K. Making America Hate Again? Twitter and Hate Crime Under Trump.

    Social Science Research Network. Nakano, T. Nau, H. The American Interest. Olzak, S.

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    Social Forces, 82 2 , pp. Polimpung, H. Depok: Penerbit Kepik. Rogers, K. Schwartz, I. Real Clear Politics. Shan, Z. Economy in The Jackson Era. Smith, R. When The U. Planet Money. Swanson, A. The Quote Company. Solar Panel Prices. Trump, D. Twitter Page. US Census Bureau.

    Historical Statistics of the United States, - Top Trading Partners - December Trade in Goods with World, Seasonally Adjusted.

    The Jackson Era

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    World Trade Organization. Zeng, K. User Username Password Remember me. Article Tools Print this article. Indexing metadata. How to cite item. Finding References. Email this article Login required. Email the author Login required. President Trump has imposed a set of tariffs and quotas for such imported agriculture and manufactured products. Such trade policies triggered many American trading partners, most notably China and NAFTA members, to take any retaliatory measures, starting trade war.

    Preliminary observation on this issue starts with two problematization. The economy was in recession in —, but recovered and grew sharply after that. The Iran—Contra affair was the most prominent scandal during this time, wherein the Reagan Administration sold weapons to Iran , and used the money for CIA aid to pro-American guerrilla Contras in left-leaning Nicaragua.

    A widely discussed demographic phenomenon of the s was the rise of the " Sun Belt ", a region encapsulating the Southwest , Southeast , and especially Florida and California surpassing New York as the nation's most populous state in By , the population of the Sun Belt had risen to exceed that of the industrial regions of the Northeast and Midwest —the Rust Belt , which had steadily lost industry and had little population growth. Young, working-age Americans and affluent retirees all flocked to the Sun Belt. The rise of the Sun Belt has been producing a change in the nation's political climate, strengthening conservatism.

    The boom mentality in this growing region conflicted sharply with the concerns of the Rust Belt , populated mainly by those either unable or unwilling to move elsewhere, particularly minority groups and senior citizens. The Northeast and Midwest have remained more committed to social programs and more interested in regulated growth than the wide-open, sprawling states of the South and West. Electoral trends in the regions reflect this divergence—the Northeast and Midwest have been increasingly voting for Democratic candidates in federal, state and local elections while the South and West are now the solid base for the Republican Party.

    As manufacturing industry gradually moved out of its traditional centers in the Northeast and Midwest, joblessness and poverty increased. The liberal response, typified by Mayor John Lindsay of New York City was to dramatically increase welfare services and education, as well as public employment and public salaries, at a time when the tax base was shrinking.

    New York City barely averted bankruptcy in ; it was rescued using state and federal money, along with strict state control of its budget. Meanwhile, conservatives, based in the suburbs, the rural areas, and the Sunbelt railed against what they identified as the failures of liberal social programs, as well as their enormous expenses.

    This was a potent theme in the presidential race and the mid-term elections , when the Republicans captured the House of Representatives after 40 years of Democratic control.

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    The liberal leaders of the s, characteristic of the era of the Great Society and the civil rights movement , gave way to conservative urban politicians in the s across the country, such as New York City 's Mayor, Ed Koch , a conservative Democrat. The s inflicted damaging blows to the American self-confidence. The Vietnam War and the Watergate scandal shattered confidence in the presidency.

    International frustrations, including the fall of South Vietnam in , the Iran hostage crisis in , the Soviet intervention in Afghanistan , the growth of international terrorism, and the acceleration of the arms race raised fears over the country's ability to control international affairs. The energy crisis, high unemployment, and very high inflation and escalating interest rates made economic planning difficult and raised fundamental questions over the future of American prosperity.

    American "malaise", a term that caught on following Carter's "crisis of confidence" speech, in the late s and early s was not unfounded as the nation seemed to be losing its self-confidence. Under the rule of Leonid Brezhnev the Soviet economy was falling behind—it was decades behind in computers, for example—and was kept alive because of lucrative oil exports. Most dramatic was the victory in Vietnam in when North Vietnam invaded and conquered South Vietnam ; American forces were involved only to rescue American supporters.

    Nearly a million refugees fled; most who survived came to the U. And the Soviet Union seemed committed to the Brezhnev Doctrine , ending the s by sending troops to Afghanistan in a move roundly denounced by the West and Muslim countries. Reacting to all these perceptions of American decline internationally and domestically, a group of academics, journalists, politicians, and policymakers, labeled by many as "new conservatives" or " neoconservatives ", since many of them were still Democrats, rebelled against the Democratic Party's leftward drift on defense issues in the s especially after the nomination of George McGovern in , and also blamed liberal Democrats for the nation's weakened geopolitical stance.

    Many clustered around Senator Henry "Scoop" Jackson , a Democrat, but they later aligned themselves with Ronald Reagan and the Republicans, who promised to confront pro-Soviet Communist expansion. Generally they were anti-communist Democrats and opposed to the welfare programs of the Great Society. They wanted rollback and the peaceful end of the Communist threat rather than aimless negotiations, diplomacy, and arms control. Led by Norman Podhoretz , the neoconservatives attacked the foreign policy orthodoxy in the Cold War as " appeasement ", an allusion to Neville Chamberlain 's negotiations at Munich in Before the election of Reagan, the neoconservatives, gaining in influence, sought to stem the antiwar sentiments caused by the U.

    During the s, Jeane Kirkpatrick , a political scientist and later U.